By Han F. Vermeulen
Han F. Vermeulen explores basic and secondary assets from Russia, Germany, Austria, the U.S., the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, and nice Britain in tracing how “ethnography” was once all started as box examine by way of German-speaking historians and naturalists in Siberia (Russia) during the 1730s and 1740s, used to be generalized as “ethnology” by means of students in Göttingen (Germany) and Vienna (Austria) throughout the 1770s and 1780s, and was once in this case followed by way of researchers in different countries.
Before Boas argues that anthropology and ethnology have been separate sciences in the course of the Age of cause, learning racial and ethnic variety, respectively. Ethnography and ethnology concentrated no longer on “other” cultures yet on all peoples of all eras. Following G. W. Leibniz, researchers in those fields classified peoples essentially in line with their languages. Franz Boas professionalized the holistic research of anthropology from the Eighteen Eighties into the 20 th century.
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Additional info for Before Boas: The Genesis of Ethnography and Ethnology in the German Enlightenment
As the Siberian conquest had begun in 1581, the Kamchatka expeditions were part of Russian expansion and the postconquest colonization of Siberia (Dahlmann 2009; Donnert 2009). , Asad 1973, 1991; Pels 2008). However, in anthropology and its historiography, this theory is a matter of controversy (H. S. Lewis 2014). The debate started with the questioning of authority in the 1960s. History and Theory 23 Charges were made that anthropology was a form of “scientific colonialism” (Galtung 1967) and the “child of imperialism” (Gough 1968a, 1968b).
The first branch became “less interested in history and more in its supreme principle. ” This branch was “interested in the actual story of what appeared to have happened to mankind. . as an array or series of particular peoples” (Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952:19, 145– 146; 1963: 33, 285). This observation is relevant for the present research. Focusing on the concept of culture, Kroeber and Kluckhohn paid little attention to the role of Völkerkunde and did not consult Bastian (1881) or Plischke (1925).
Geertz 1985:623). This lineup ranges from the twentieth to the nineteenth and the eighteenth centuries back to antiquity. Yet the majority of sociocultural anthropologists trace the origins of their discipline to the 1860s, when their “ancestors” embraced evolutionism as a theory and kinship as a method. For them Bachofen’s Mutterrecht (1861), Maine’s Ancient Law (1861), McLennan’s Primitive Marriage (1865), Tylor’s Primitive Culture (1871), and Morgan’s Ancient Society (1877) are the founding texts of sociocultural anthropology as a specialized discourse on human diversity.
Before Boas: The Genesis of Ethnography and Ethnology in the German Enlightenment by Han F. Vermeulen