Download e-book for kindle: Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory by James B. Freeman

By James B. Freeman

ISBN-10: 9400703562

ISBN-13: 9789400703568

This monograph first provides a style of diagramming argument macrostructure, synthesizing the traditional circle and arrow process with the Toulmin version. A theoretical justification of this system via a dialectical knowing of argument, a serious exam of Toulmin on warrants, an intensive dialogue of the linked-convergent contrast, and an account of the correct reconstruction of enthymemes follows.

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Extra info for Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory (Argumentation Library)

Example text

But, as Rescher points out, in formal disputation this move is a countermove to the warrant of the argument. It is thus a countermove to the inferential step from premises to conclusion, not a countermove against the conclusion. That rebutting and undercutting defeaters may be appropriately represented simply as defeaters, using one defeater box, may be further supported by considering how an argument may be extended to counter these countermoves to the warrant of the argument. How might our proponent extend his argument to answer the question of how he can be sure in light of R, specifically to counter the rebutting defeater R, and how would such an argument involve structural considerations beyond those we have already introduced?

How then should we diagram this argument? As we shall see shortly, Toulmin’s model provides what we need. In Thinking Logically (1988), we advocate incorporating elements of the Toulmin model into the standard approach. Toulmin has a radically different conception of argument structure. Just what this is and how it raises questions for the standard approach and indeed for the whole issue of recognizing the structure of arguments, we turn to next. 3 Toulmin’s Layout of Arguments In The Uses of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposes a radically different approach to displaying argument structure.

Although Toulmin is not always clear on this point, a warrant is an inference rule. Although arguments (as products) may instance inference rules, in which case the warrant licenses a step from one or more premises to a conclusion, the warrant is not a premise or any other element explicitly in the argument. This point is obvious with deductive warrants. Consider If demand for goods in general increases, then prices for goods in general will rise. Demand for goods in general is increasing. Therefore, prices for goods in general will rise, a clear cut case of Modus ponens: From To infer If p then q p q But it would be clearly wrongheaded to ask which of the statements in the argument as product present the data and which is the warrant.

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Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory (Argumentation Library) by James B. Freeman


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