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By John G. Beerends (auth.), Mark Kahrs, Karlheinz Brandenburg (eds.)

ISBN-10: 030647042X

ISBN-13: 9780306470424

ISBN-10: 0792381300

ISBN-13: 9780792381303

Karlheinz Brandenburg and Mark Kahrs With the appearance of multimedia, electronic sign processing (DSP) of sound has emerged from the shadow of bandwidth constrained speech processing. at the present time, the most appli cations of audio DSP are prime quality audio coding and the electronic new release and manipulation of song signs. They proportion universal learn issues together with percep tual dimension concepts and analysis/synthesis equipment. Smaller yet still vitally important themes are listening to aids utilizing sign processing know-how and architectures for electronic sign processing of audio. In a majority of these components the decade has obvious an important volume of program orientated learn. the subjects coated right here coincide with the themes coated within the biannual paintings store on “Applications of sign Processing to Audio and Acoustics”. This occasion is subsidized via the IEEE sign Processing Society (Technical Committee on Audio and Electroacoustics) and occurs at Mohonk Mountain condo in New Paltz, big apple. a brief evaluation of every bankruptcy will illustrate the big variety of technical fabric offered within the chapters of this publication. John Beerends: Perceptual dimension options. the appearance of perceptual size recommendations is a byproduct of the arrival of electronic coding for either speech and prime quality audio indications. conventional size schemes are undesirable estimates for the subjective caliber after electronic coding/decoding. Listening assessments are topic to sta tistical uncertainties and the fundamental query of repeatability in a unique environment.

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5. Therefore the amount of masking is dependent on the parameters α f r e q and α t i m e which determine, together with the slopes S1 and S 2 , the amount of smearing. However the values for α f r e q and α t i m e found in literature were optimized with respect to the masked threshold and can thus not be used in our 14 APPLICATIONS OF DSP TO AUDIO AND ACOUSTICS model. Therefore these two α 's will be optimized in the context of audio quality measurements. In the psychoacoustic model the physical time-frequency representation is calculated using a FFT with a 50% overlapping Hanning (sin²) window of approximately 40 ms, leading to a time resolution of about 20 ms.

Within the internal representation approach this effect is accounted for by the nonlinear addition of the individual time frequency components in the excitation domain. 6 THE PERCEPTUAL AUDIO QUALITY MEASURE (PAQM) After calculation of the internal loudness-time-pitch representations of the input and output of the audio device the perceived quality of the output signal can be derived from the difference between the internal representations. The density functions x (t, z) (loudness density as a function of time and pitch for the input x) and scaled y (t, z) are subtracted to obtain a noise disturbance density function n (t, z).

Therefore the smearing consists of two parts, one part describing how the energy at one point in the time-frequency domain results in excitation at another point, and a part that describes how the different excitations at a certain point, resulting from the smearing of the individual time-frequency components, add up. Until now only time-frequency smearing of the audio signal by the ear, which leads to an excitation representation, has been described. This excitation representation is generally measured in dB SPL (Sound Pressure Level) as a function of time and frequency.

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Applications of Digital Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics by John G. Beerends (auth.), Mark Kahrs, Karlheinz Brandenburg (eds.)

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