By Paul Williams
Brings jointly Paul Williams' formerly released papers at the Indian and Tibetan interpretations of chosen verses from the 8th and 9th chapters of the Bodhicaryavatara.
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Extra resources for Altruism and Reality : Studies in the Philosophy of the Bodhicaryavatara
Such a view is, of course, very strongly opposed by Tsong kha pa. 28 Thus any suggestion that this is nirviilJa might be taken to mean that nirviilJa could be a really-existing non-dual mind stream. Moreover since for the Madhyamaka unlike Cittamatra absence of subject and object is not as such what is meant by emptiness (emptiness for Madhyamaka is absence of inherent existence), one might misunder stand Santideva to mean that nirviilJa could come through realising the absence of subject and obj ect, without requiring a realisation of emptiness.
14 A person is a conventional entity, for it is dependently originated, conceptualised in dependence upon one or more of the five aggregates . Although the person in this sense can sometimes be spoken of as a conventional 'self' (atmanlbdag), and therefore the iitman is not totally negated in dGe lugs Madhyamaka, the term atman has other usages connected with inherent existence, a True Self, which are not accepted in any sense by Madhyamaka. 15 rGyal tshab's use of the term gang zag makes it clear that he does not see the opponent's position or Santideva's counter-argument as one 37 Altruism and Reality involving the sufferings of bodies as such, but rather as one between persons, which is much wider in scope than a concern for bodies.
For it is one thing to speak of my present body as other in relationship to future bodies in the same significant way that I am other to contemporary others. It is quite another thing to refer to me as a present person as bearing the same relationship to the persons of my future lives as I bear now to contemporary others. The problem would be even more acute were rGyal tshab to apply the notion of personhood across the wider application. For surely my relationship to contemporary other persons could not be the same as my relationship to other persons at any time in the future in my own present-life continuum ?
Altruism and Reality : Studies in the Philosophy of the Bodhicaryavatara by Paul Williams