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Also assume that, for simplicity, in both orthogonal directions the susceptibility is χ2 and that |χ1|, |χ2| << 1. Then the magnetic energy is given by 2 VB 1 2 2 U = --- V M • B 0 = ----------0 [ χ 1 cos θ + χ 2 sin θ ] , 2µ 0 2 and the torque is given by 2 VB ∂U T = ------- = ----------0 ( χ 2 – χ 1 ) sin θ cos θ . µ0 ∂θ 0874_frame_C01 Page 19 Wednesday, November 8, 2000 12:00 PM Health Effects and Safety of Static Magnetic Fields 19 Normally, for biological materials, both χ1 and χ2 will be negative and of the order of –10–5.

3 is that the torque on an object, such as a tissue component, with |χ| << 1 is proportional to χ2. It is sometimes thought that diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials tend to line up differently in a uniform magnetic field. This result shows that the alignment torque is independent of the sign of χ and that both types of materials tend to align with the long axis parallel to the field. More importantly, however, this also shows that for very small values of χ, this shape-dependent alignment tendency is negligibly small.

It is therefore prudent and logical to take reasonable precautions against casual and readily avoidable exposure to intense fields and to provide guidelines based on the best available information for the exposure of workers whose duties require working in the vicinity of magnetic fields. Furthermore, it is important and desirable that additional data be collected and analyzed to provide improved confidence in the safety of magnetic field exposure. X. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS For the vast majority of the more than 100 million clinical MRI studies performed since the early 1980s, there has not been any evidence of harm to the patients from the static magnetic field.

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Acceptability of Risk From Radiation - Human Spaceflight


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