By David Powell
The layout of desktops to be embedded in serious real-time purposes is a fancy activity. Such platforms mustn't ever merely warrantly to satisfy challenging real-time points in time imposed by means of their actual setting, they need to warrantly to take action dependably, regardless of either actual faults (in undefined) and layout faults (in or software). A fault-tolerance technique is needed for those promises to be commensurate with the security and reliability specifications of many lifestyles- and mission-critical purposes. This publication explains the motivations and the result of a collaborative project', whose goal was once to seriously lessen the lifecycle expenses of such fault tolerant structures. The end-user businesses engaging during this venture already installation fault-tolerant platforms in serious railway, area and nuclear-propulsion functions. even if, those are proprietary platforms whose architectures were adapted to satisfy domain-specific necessities. This has ended in very expensive, rigid, and sometimes hardware-intensive options that, by the point they're built, proven and licensed to be used within the box, can already be out-of-date by way of their underlying and software program technology.
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For the sake of simplicity, we assume that each channel contains only one node (the problem of synchronising all the nodes inside a given channel is another issue, which we do not analyse here). We thus have n = C ~ 4. 2 we consider only convergence algorithms. These algorithms are based on a periodic resynchronisation interval. ). Let n be the number of active nodes. If we make no assumption about the leN, then we have to deal with possible Byzantine faulty clocks: • When n = 4, then both convergence-averaging or convergence-nonaveraging algorithms can be used.
In particular, fault injection (carried out on prototypes) complements the other validation components by providing means for: a) assessing the validity of the necessary assumptions made during formal verification, and b) estimating the coverage parameters included in the analytical models for dependability evaluation. The following three subsections briefly describe the related validation activities. 1 Formal Verification Formal approaches have been used for specifying and verifying critical dependability mechanisms .
Of course this implies that one symmetric or one manifest fault can be tolerated as well. • When n = 3, two simultaneous faults can be tolerated, provided that at least one of them is not arbitrary". For example, one arbitrary fault and one manifest fault can be tolerated simultaneously. In case n=2, the Agreement property becomes vacuous, but the Validity property must still be satisfied. This restriction could be eliminated by using a three-round protocol. A Generic Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems 43 Note that in a practical system, inter-channel fault tolerance by itself is not sufficient: when a channel is faulty, it must be identified (through fault diagnosis) and eliminated (through reconfiguration).
A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems by David Powell