By Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)
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Additional resources for 3D Contrast MR Angiography
Neither of these has proven reliable. Three-dimensional (3D) contrast MRA now offers several advantages that make pulmonary MRA possible. The 3D spoiled gradient echo technique has an intrinsically short echo time (TE). With high performance gradients, echo times under 3 and even 1-2 ms are available. These are sufficient to eliminate susceptibility artifact. Due to the enhancement with paramagnetic contrast, 3D contrast MRA is less affected by inflow variations that create pulsation artifact on time-of-flight and phase contrast imaging.
CHAPTER 3 Thoracic Aorta Background MR imaging has emerged as a powerful non-invasive tool for the assessment of the thoracic aorta. MR protocols inc1ude both black-blood spin echo (SE), as weIl as bright-blood gradient recalled echo (GRE), scans acquired in various planes. The bright blood techniques inc1ude a variety of ECG-gated time-of-flight approaches as weIl as the retrospectively gated eine sequence, which provides a dynamic analysis of blood flow in the aorta throughout a cardiac cyeIe.
For exoscopie viewing, sometimes referred to as volume rendering, a virtuallight source and observer are positioned outside the vessel. While the images provide a more three-dimensional appreciation of the arterial anatomy, the diagnostie value of this post-processing method remains limited to the description of pathologies and demonstration of the outer shape of the vessel or their topographie arrangement. Little information is provided about the vessel lumen. However, the ability to demonstrate complicated three-dimensional structures, such as tortuous arteries and especially a tortuous aorta, have made this technique well-received in the evaluation of aortie aneurysmal disease.
3D Contrast MR Angiography by Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)